Fred Russell Kramer is Professor of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at Rutgers University, and has been a Principal Investigator at the Public Health Research Institute for the past 30 years. He also serves as PHRI's Associate Director for Business Development. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1964 and received his doctorate from the Rockefeller University in 1969. He was on the faculty of the Department of Genetics and Development at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons for 17 years, and was a Research Professor in the Department of Microbiology at New York University School of Medicine for 27 years.
PCR assays are the most rapid, most sensitive, and least expensive way to assess the abundance of mutant DNA fragments present in liquid biopsies. “SuperSelective” PCR primers, due to their unique design, are extraordinarily specific, able to selectively initiate the synthesis of amplicons on ten mutant DNA fragments in the presence of 1,000,000 wild-type DNA fragments (even though the only difference between the mutant and the wild type is a single-nucleotide polymorphism). Sets of SuperSelective primers, each possessing unique 5’-tag sequences, enable the amplicons generated from each mutant to be distinguished by differently colored molecular beacon probes.
The inclusion of primers for a wild-type reference gene fragment, enables the abundance of each type of mutant DNA fragment to be assessed by determining the difference between its threshold value and the threshold value of the reference gene.